Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder in which a person has high blood sugar or known as in a hyperglycemic condition. Actually in Indonesia, there are almost 50% of people who have not been diagnosed with diabetes yet. From those who have been diagnosed, only 67% have undergone medication. According to WHO, Indonesia is the sixth country with the highest number of people with diabetes. How do you get diabetes mellitus? First it is important to know the hormone that is produced by our body that relate with blood sugar, i.e insulin. Hyperglycemia or high blood sugar is controlled by the insulin. So if there is inability of the body to control the blood sugar level, it might be due to disruption of production or secretion of insulin. Normally, the blood sugar level is within 60 mg/dl to 145 mg/dl. Further complications which may occur because of diabetes mellitus are cardiovascular disease, stroke, eye disease, kidney disease, or neurology problems. Here are list of symptoms that might be related to diabetes mellitus:
  • Unquenchable thirst and hunger
  • Frequent urinating with increased volume
  • Easily fatigued
  • Tingling sensation or numbness in your hands, legs, or feet
  • Losing weight
  • Wound or bruises that take more time to heal
  • Nausea, headache, blurred vision, dry and itchy skin
  • Laboratory result : random blood glucose is over 200 mg/dl and fasting blood glucose is more than 126 mg/dl
Types of Diabetes: Type 1 diabetes (Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus) : is a condition which there is a disruption of hormone insulin’s production, hence body need insulin from medication. It occurs due to disruption of Pancreatic cells which normally produce insulin. An auto-immune reaction can alter insulin-producing cells. Genetic problems might relate with type 1 diabetes. Thus, insulin injection is needed to control the levels of blood glucose. Type 2 diabetes (Non-Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus) : It occurs due to insufficient insulin production or insulin resistancy. Genetic problem only accounts for 5% in the incidence of type 2 diabetes. Other than that, diet and sedentary life style play great roles. Recently, sedentary life style include poor diet and daily activity lifestyle play role in the incidence of diabetes mellitus. Moreover, stress and increased number of geriatry are also related to diabetes mellitus. Then, how to prevent diabetes mellitus? Prevention starts from changing our lifestyle. Healthy dietary intake is important, try to reduce foods with high levels of fat, sodium, and of course, sugar. Then, balance it with routine physical exercises for at least 30 minutes per day. Furthermore, keep your body weight within normal ideal weight, avoid smoking and do a routine medical check up. For those with diabetes mellitus, discipline is necessary. Blood glucose level should be monitored routinely and accompanied by routine medications especially when you already need insulin to control your blood glucose level.