Hujan deras yang mengguyur Jakarta dan beberapa tempat lain di Indonesia beberapa minggu terakhir ini telah menyebabkan banjir di berbagai daerah. Banyak penyakit berbahaya yang dapat terjadi sebagai akibat dari banjir, salah satunya adalah pneumonia aspirasi. Pneumonia aspirasi merupakan radang paru-paru yang disebabkan oleh terbawanya kuman (tersering adalah bakteri Streptococcus pneumoniae) yang memang hidup di tenggorokan manusia sehat, ke saluran nafas bagian bawah saat seseorang bernapas. Hal ini menimbulkan kerusakan pada jaringan paru. Kerusakan yang terjadi tergantung jumlah dan jenis kuman yang teraspirasi serta daya tahan tubuh seseorang. Penyakit ini lebih sering dijumpai pada pria daripada perempuan, terutama usia anak atau usia lanjut. Seharusnya, jika ada benda asing yang masuk dari mulut ke dalam saluran pernafasan, tubuh akan mengeluarkan mekanisme pertahanannya atau mengalami proses peradangan maupun infeksi, untuk mencegah benda tersebut masuk ke dalam paru-paru. Jika tubuh gagal dalam melakukan mekanisme di atas, benda asing tidak dapat dikeluarkan dan dapat menyebabkan pneumonia. Orang yang berisiko untuk menderita pneumonia aspirasi adalah orang dengan daya tahan tubuh lemah. Oleh sebab itu, pada umumnya para korban penderita banjir sangat mudah terkena pneumonia aspirasi. Hal ini dikarenakan kondisi lingkungan dan daya tahan tubuh mereka yang sangat buruk. Belum lagi permasalahan tempat dan makanan juga ikut mendukung munculnya penyakit ini. Dengan kondisi yang sedemikian buruknya, para korban banjir sangat rentan terhadap berbagai penyakit. Masuknya bakteri, benda asing lain, atau asam lambung mereka sendiri ke dalam saluran pernapasan dapat membuat mereka terkena pneumonia aspirasi. Gejala awal pneumonia adalah sesak nafas dan peningkatan denyut jantung. Gejala lainnya bisa berupa demam, nyeri dada, denyut jantung meningkat, batuk, dahak kemerahan dan kulit yang kebiruan karena darah yang kurang mengandung oksigen. Jika terjadi penyumbatan trakea oleh benda asing, maka si pasien tidak akan bisa bernafas atau berbicara. Kondisi ini jika tidak mendapatkan penanganan yang tepat dapat menyebabkan kematian. Pengobatan pneumonia aspirasi bisa dengan berbagai cara tergantung dari jenisnya. Obat antibiotik yang dapat diberikan adalah penisilin atau sefalosporin generasi ke 3, ataupun klindamisin bila penisilin tidak mempan atau pasien alergi terhadap penisilin. Tidak ada patokan pasti lamanya terapi, yang pasti antibiotik perlu diteruskan hingga kondisi pasien baik, atau gambaran radiologis bersih atau stabil selama 2 minggu (pada umumnya selama 3-6 minggu). Bedah terhadap abses tidak diperlukan kecuali bila respon terapi kurang dan terjadi kekambuhan infeksi di tempat yang sama.

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Pneumonia aspirasi merupakan suatu penyakit yang sebenarnya tidak terlalu berbahaya asalkan mendapat penanganan yang cepat, tepat, dan akurat. Jangan sampai para penderita penyakit ini dibiarkan terlalu lama (apalagi di daerah banjir yang sulit transportasi dan komunikasi) karena bila penanganannya terlambat bisa menimbulkan kematian (akibat sesak nafas atau tidak mampu makan). Sumber : 1. Ilmu Penyakit Dalam Universitas Indonesia 2. www.nlm.gov