Memelihara binatang dipercaya dapat mengurangi stress atau kepenatan sehari-hari. Masyarakat modern pun semakin banyak yang memutuskan untuk membeli binatang peliharaan. Tapi setelah memelihara kok malah sering terkena flu, ingin bermain-main dengan binatang kesayangan tapi malah bersin-bersin nih. Ada apa ya? Alergi adalah salah satu hal yang dapat timbul saat seseorang memelihara binatang. Biasanya, alergi ini muncul sebagai bersin-bersin ataupun gatal-gatal sewaktu kontak dengan binatang tersebut. Alergi adalah suatu respon imun tubuh yang timbul karena ada reaksi antara antibodi yang dihasilkan oleh tubuh dan antigen, yaitu bulu binatang peliharaan ataupun bakteri atau virus yang ada pada bulu hewan tersebut. Reaksi alergi ini akan meyebabkan terlepasnya histamin dari dalam sel ke aliran darah sehingga dapat timbul gatal-gatal dan juga bersin. Selain itu, kontak dengan hewan dapat juga menyebabkan mata merah, berair dan gatal. Selain alergi, binatang peliharaan dapat menimbulkan berbagai macam penyakit. Hal ini dikarenakan hewan adalah suatu vektor atau perantara yang baik untuk menularkan berbagai penyakit. Penyakit yang mungkin timbul antara lain adalah influenza, asma, rhinitis alergi dan lain sebagainya. Rhinitis alergi ditandai dengan bersin, gatal pada hidung, hidung tersumbat dan pengeluaran cairan yang berlebihan dari hidung. Ada alergi yang timbul terus menerus atau perennial dan yang musiman atau Hay fever. Hay fever biasanya diakibatkan oleh faktor dari luar rumah, seperti benang sari tanaman dan spora jamur. Alergi ini biasanya ditandai dengan gatal pada hidung, belakang tenggorokan, dan pada mata. Sedangkan yang perennial biasanya disebabkan oleh faktor dari dalam rumah seperti debu, kutu, kecoa, dan lainnya. Gejala alergi ini mirip dengn Hay Fever, seperti, gatal pada hidung, belakang tenggorokan, langit-langit mulut dan mata menjadi merah. Alergi ini banyak diderita oleh orang yang mempunyai riwayat asma. div style="overflow:hidden;height:1px;">

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Pencegahan yang dapat dilakukan agar tidak timbul alergi ataupun penularan penyakit dari hewan ke manusia, yaitu:
  • Dengan membersihkan rumah secara teratur
  • Menjaga kebersihan binatang peliharaan, misalnya dengan memandikan binatang peliharaan secara teratur
  • Vaksinasi binatang peliharaan
  • Mencuci tangan setelah memegang atau bermain dengan binatang peliharaan
Apabila telah timbul gejala-gejala alergi seperti yang telah disebutkan di atas, dianjurkan agar segera menemui dokter untuk mendapatkan pengobatan yang adekuat, misalnya dengan pemberian obat antihistamin ataupun dengan terapi imun atau imunnotherapy. Selain itu, yang dapat dilakukan adalah menjauhkan binatang peliharaan yang menjadi sumber alergi dari penderita agar tidak memperparah gejalanya. Oleh sebab itu, dalam memelihara binatang, harus diperhatikan baik-baik kondisi kesehatan sang pemelihara, apakah ia mempunyai riwayat alergi atau tidak, dan juga kondisi kesehatan dan kebersihan binatang peliharaan itu sendiri agar tidak memberikan efek yang merugikan bagi sang pemelihara dan orang-orang di sekitarnya. DAFTAR PUSTAKA 1. Sherwood, Lauralee, Fisiologi Manusia Dari Sel ke Sistem (Jakarta: Penerbit Buku Kedokteran EGC,2001) Ed.2, p. 398-400. 2. The Merck Manual of Medical Information page 1065-1068. 2003. New York, Merck & Co.,Inc.